Scientists of Spain and Portugal developed a theoretical model and found with it new types of boson stars, hypothetical objects, which do not consist of fermions like ordinary stars, and boson. Such stars can have the shape of a donut, but quickly fall apart due to external disturbances. About it reported in a press release on Phys.org.
Bosons — particles that can exist in the same quantum state. This distinguishes them from fermions (e.g. electrons), are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle. From the usual fermions make up matter, and some bosons, e.g. photons, are carriers of interaction. At the same time, it is believed that dark matter may consist of ultralight particles, which are also bosons.
A property of bosons to be in the same condition hypothetically could lead to the emergence of macroscopic objects, and exotic stars. In the new work, astrophysicists have found, can be stable rotating boson stars. For this they used a numerical model based on the General theory of relativity.
The researchers considered two scenarios. In the first big bosonic cloud of matter collapses to form a rotating star. In the second scenario, the researchers tested, resistant to perturbations already introduced the boson star or not. Rotating boson stars can be one of two types. The star shaped scalar particles with zero spin, and the vector particles with spin 1.
Scientists have found that scalar stars have the shape of a torus, and vector remain spherical, but flattened at the poles. In this toroidal-star is unstable to perturbations and apart from the possible formation of a black hole. Spheroidal sustained as normal stars.
In the future, physicists plan to find out whether scalar stars unstable or it depends on the properties of dark matter particles from which they consist.
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