Technology

Ripples of space-time explain the existence of the Universe

Рябь пространства-времени объяснит существование Вселенной

A new study may help to find an answer in one of the biggest mysteries of the Universe: why more matter than antimatter? The answer to this question, in turn, may explain why there are all around: from atoms to black holes.

Billions of years ago, shortly after the Big Bang, energy was transformed into matter. Physicists believe that with the rapid growth of the scale of the Universe was created equal amounts of matter and antimatter, which destroy each other upon contact. But then something happened that persuaded the scales in favor of matter, allowing to receive all that we can see. A new study suggests that the explanation is hidden in the very small fluctuations of space-time.

“If equal amounts of matter and antimatter, you simply will not be anything, because antimatter and matter have equal but opposite charge, says the study’s lead author Jeff Dror, is a research fellow at the University of California, Berkeley and a physicist National laboratory. Lawrence Berkeley. — Everything will be just destroyed.”

Scientists wonder why this has not happened. The answer can give neutrinos that have no electric charge and, thus, can behave as matter or antimatter.

The idea is that after about a million years after the Big Bang, the universe cooled and passed phase transition, an event that is similar to the process of boiling turns a liquid into a gas. This phase made of the decaying neutrinos to create more matter than antimatter.

Dror and his team, with the help of theoretical models and calculations, found a way to see this phase transition. They suggested that a modification would create an extremely long and extremely thin strands of energy called “cosmic strings” that still permeate the Universe. The threads are likely to create a very weak ripples in space-time, called gravitational waves. Detect these gravitational waves — and we can find out whether the theory is correct.

When the scientists modeled a hypothetical phase transition at different temperatures, which could occur in that time, they made an interesting discovery: in all cases, the outer strands will create gravitational waves that can detect the Observatory, such as Space antenna laser interferometer of the European space Agency (LISA) and the Observatory of gravitational waves (DECIGO) of the Interferometer of the Japanese space Agency.

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