And you say, economical hybrids, electric cars. Here at Brest riding Oise, running on wood! For a better understanding of consumption of this machine is worth quoting Sergey, the owner, and can say, designer: “One day we stopped in the woods for mushrooms and found that ended for firewood. What to do? The rake was thrown in a bucket of cones, threw them in the pot and went on.” In short, UAZ can go for “free” wherever there is wood, where there is something that is burning. Problems may arise in the wilderness.
From the history
Sergey has always been fascinated by history, particularly military. Because the course tells about the time when such gas was at the height of technology:
“Coal gas was used by cave people. Known fact that at the time, the lighting in all of St. Petersburg was provided by gas plants. The modern history of this device starts in 1919, when the German-French engineer George Imbert, returning from the First world, collected on a charcoal gasifier. It takes two years and is the inventor of the automobile, whose the engine works on the same principle, only improvements”.
“Camera Imbert inverted type” worked so that the pyrolysis took place not in the cylinder (like Ford or Porsche), and in the boiler, which was mounted behind the driver’s cab. Pyrolysis in our case is wood burning with lack of oxygen with the release of gas, which turns the pistons of the engine (but more on that later). So, the Imbert has reached such heights that the building his company Imbert Generatoren GmbH was standing next to the Ford plant in Cologne, as if Recalling the competition. In the 30-ies of the gas engineer put on German trucks, Opel and Mercedes. By the time is ripe for international conflict that resulted in the end in world war II, Imbert figured out how to equip your installation tanks! And advanced armored vehicles really went and even were armed — mostly in “uchebke” and parts of the auxiliary police (simple — policemen).
Technology has spread not only in Germany. In the late 20’s-early 40-ies in the USSR also has used trucks with the gas generators. Commercially they are mounted on AMO, ZIS-21 (issued more than 15 thousand models), Ural-ZIS. In those days the Union had a lack of oil, and motorization to stop was impossible. Why not “flushing” machine with wood? During the great Patriotic war, these vehicles are very useful thanks to zero cost. There is evidence that gas cars broke through the blockade of Leningrad.
Mass production of oil began in the 50’s and 60’s, and eventually new fuel gradually supplanted the scientific developments of the early century. The generators were removed from the cars, and simply sent to scrap. Now we see the reverse trend — the rejection of the internal combustion engine, the use of renewable energy sources. For example, according to media reports, in Sweden, owners of cars, riding on the wood, encouraged at the state level subsidies. For the skeptics it is clear that the gas generator can be equipped on the frame of the trailer — in this scenario it is the most aesthetic.
The Project Of Sergey
In the private Museum, which is based in Brest, there is a current ZIS-5. Several lovers of automotive history once came up with dashing idea: why not put on a “grandfather”, which was produced from 1933 gasifier. Should be — after all, in 1939, a similar experiment with 21-d model was successful. And Sergey has decided to repeat. But nearly 90-year-old truck is an antique, the Antiques, so the man decided not to redo the entire fuel system is so rare current example of the Soviet automotive industry. For the sample, development of technology, he undertook the conversion of more modern machinery — a well known and fairly simple UAZ. The model was selected on the basis of Hobbies of Sergey: trophy, off-road, 4×4.
Probably the majority of readers, only to learn about the method of assembling the gas generator, gave up on the idea hand. The fact that Sergei was not ready to buy the sample or to collect his diagrams and drawings. He “calculated” the installation according to the formulas from the books of 30 years.
“In the library, the network has found, the literature, — says the designer. — Had to read a lot. Among the authors are famous names: Tokarev, Panyutin. But the blueprint for the Assembly are never found. There are just formulas. To create a generator for it — how to re-do the carb. It was necessary to calculate the speed of a blast-furnace, gasification, the volume of the desired gas, material balance — for engines of different volumes have different values. To confess, still haven’t memorized the multiplication table, but this thing is still collected. Answers to calculations according to the formulas steel dimensions. and, in fact, the drawing. Well, the Assembly produced from what was at hand. It took us a year.”
How does it work?
Fuel for gasifiers (and in this case we are talking about moderatore) are small wooden chocks. And it is not necessary that they be dry, and will burn wet wood (up to 60% humidity) — this difference of moderator from conventional gas generator. Behind the rear row of passenger seats in the car of Sergey are two bags of these chocks. Says that one is enough for 100 kilometers. In terms of mass, it turns out that consumption is 20 kg of wood per hundred. Of course, constantly throw firewood in the oven is not necessary. Threw in the beginning — and drove off.
“And this is my gas gun. Always carry,” jokes a man and demonstrates the ax.
Judging by his stories, “gun” may not be useful — in the coniferous forest you can safely go on the cones. In any case, the environmental friendliness of the setup is undeniable. As Sergey — the man of ideas, the environment for him is not an empty word.
The fuel is fed into the tank through the lid located at the top of the gasification chamber (pictured — the black barrel in the center). During operation, there is continuously the smoke. Cover it misses — thus, from afar, the car looks like a locomotive. Before starting the engine you need to wait about 5-10 minutes to came gas.
“At the bottom of the gasification chamber the wood smolder, Sergey describes the mechanics of operation of the unit. — Start of combustion — from a match or torch. Just the camera occur three processes: thermal decomposition of fuel, oxidation, recovery. When burning fuel with depleted amount of oxygen (pyrolysis) reactions oxidation of coal and hydrocarbons: C + O2 = CO2, 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O heat. Then comes the reduction reaction (passing through the layer of coals): C + CO2= 2СО, C + H2O = CO + H2 with the consumption of heat. Fuel system converted monerator almost completely decomposed. For condensate a separate tube, it can be merged”.
The gas enters the filter (in the photo, the inverted cone to the left of the camera) which ends with the jar, where the soot is deposited, then passes through a cooling system of pipes under the floor of the Oise. If you burn gas at this stage, the flame will be red.
If “dirty” gas to run the engine, its parts are quickly covered with bloom, will decrease their life. Because the fuel enters the filter (in the photo — green barrel to the right of the camera). A filter element is simply sawdust. They need to be changed every 2 thousand kilometers. After passing through this filter the gas burns with a blue flame.
The purified gas is delivered directly into the cylinders 2.4-liter motor, there are flashes of burnt, resulting in the movement of the entire Assembly, and hence the entire car. The exhaust system is regular, but it emits carbon dioxide (just like people when you exhale). That is, you no toxic carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, aldehydes and other substances, which are the environmentalists. For the same reason, the engine oil needs to be changed only after 30 thousand km of mileage.
In terms of comfort “wood-fired” UAZ not particularly happy — in principle, like all machines of this model (even those that run on gasoline). After a trip to the clothing remains a light scent of fire (not an irritant), the “stove” running hotter than usual. In the cabin for the supply of gas meets the flapper lever hidden to the left of the steering wheel.
In the UAZ there are two fuel tank for gasoline: with the left and right sides of the body (specially in case one of them will be shot). To dispel doubts about the health of moderator and show that the access to both tanks closed, Sergei shows the lever in the cabin — it is in the neutral position. If necessary the tanks can be filled with petrol — then you get kind of a hybrid.
Finally, on security. In the device adjoin open fire and gas that is alarming. According to Sergei, the risk of fire or explosion is minimal, because the gas is not under high pressure. “The petrol car is easier to ignite than this car”, — assured the man.
Problems with the official registration of transport, too — as seen in the photo, UAZ is on the account, it has numbers. The inspection also passed: according to documents, the inflator is mounted the cargo. It can be removed and the Bay of the gas, pass the line.
“The most exciting moment was when I first ran the motor, — says the designer. — To admit, the first time out. Then sat there wondering, what’s wrong? The network has found several of the same Russian and Ukrainian fans, like me. By the time you already created a forum where guys shared nuances of cashew nuts, ways of solving problems. As you can see, in the end all I got: UAZ works confidently rides through the swamps and terrain, accelerates on the highway to 70 km/h. I will Say more: the system can be hidden in a trailer and install on any vehicle with the internal combustion engine. This is according to my calculations, will cost about $ 300 equivalent. We can say the experiment was a success. But let me remind you — it was a prototype. Main project — ZIS-5 native of 30 years. I now have the team continue to work on it. We plan to finish by may 9 and roll out both cars on parade: pass through the city streets, as a grandfather and a grandson. Well, then will come up with something for the 1000th anniversary of Brest”.