Tatiana Pichugina. In the 1960s archeologists discovered in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine, a huge settlement built by the representatives of Tripoli culture six thousand years ago. Area — hundreds of acres, tens of thousands of homes. Perhaps it was the direct predecessors of the cities of Mesopotamia. On the most ancient proto-towns — in the material RIA Novosti.
The fruits of collective labor
At the turn of the stone and bronze ages the fertile lands between the Dnieper and the Southern bug more than three thousand years was occupied by farmers and pastoralists, which left many artifacts, dwellings, barrows, utensils, tools. Archaeologists combine them into the culture of Tripolye-Cucuteni.
In Soviet times scientists using aerial photography found traces of important archaeological monuments, reminiscent of the settlement. Excavations confirmed the hypothesis.
The largest object Nebelivka, three thousand wooden houses on an area of 320 hectares. The same order and maidanets’ke tal’yanky. In the terminology of specialists is megacity. On the territory of Romania, Moldova and Ukraine of their two dozen.
Megacity designed on a circular principle: in the centre a large empty space surrounded by the two lines of buildings with a buffer zone between them. The house was located on the outskirts. In the mid-2000s, geophysical methods establish clear external borders in some areas. For example, in Nebelivka the length of ditches six miles.
Sensational discovery here was made in the course of excavations 2012 — two story house 20 by 40 meters with a large open yard. The spire over the entrance was crowned with Crescent horns up symbol, constantly found among the artifacts of Trypillya culture. Throughout Europe at the time, there was a grander buildings than this. Orientation to the cardinal, sizes, large altars on the ground floor, a few vessels-cups, moulds for bread baking, a lot of broken blood vessels, figurines, animal bones in the cultural layer around indicated that this was most likely a temple where rituals used to be performed, and made sacrifices.
Most of the buildings, including the house of the temple, find the burnt one. This is one of the mysteries of the Trypillian culture. Ukrainian and British scientists have proved that houses were burned intentionally.
Nebelivka — the biggest settlement of the copper age in Europe, and possibly in the world — there were only seven hundred years. Its value and function are still unclear. Researchers from Durham University (UK) draw attention to the paradox. On the one hand, the scale a lot of buildings, clear evidence of planning testify to the fundamental, the permanent character of the settlement. It is no coincidence that such complexes are considered proto-towns.
On the other hand, there is no evidence of the management of the bureaucracy and of social inequality, it is typical for cities. The houses are all the same, nothing said about the division between rich and poor. Surprisingly, around megasayt not disturbed the natural environment, what would be expected during the construction of large, permanent city.
The authors come to the conclusion that the Nebelivka operated in summer as a place of ritual gatherings. Here flocked the whole families of the inhabitants of small settlements within a hundred miles. They brought with them things, dishes, food, fit Pets and made common rituals. Pre-built meetinghouses and temples, equipped area for nationwide celebrations, has built a defensive moat. To stay built houses, but after one or more visits to burn them. With the onset of cold weather in Nebelivka remained a small resident population keeping the basic infrastructure up to the next season.
In a recent article John Chapman and his colleagues came to the conclusion that megacity United a number of disparate equal community inhabiting a certain space, allowing them to feel part of a common culture. In this sense, such a huge village with a low population density can be considered as an alternative to cities. It is possible that they will open in other parts of the world.
The founding fathers and migrants
According to existing ideas, the first cities appeared in Mesopotamia at about the same time as megacity in the forest-steppe of Eastern Europe. However, such settlements require strict control as to serve the interests of small ruling groups.
Since 1976 scientists from the UK explore the city of tell Brak in northeast Syria, mainly its Central, once a densely populated part (the first excavations of British archaeologists began here in 1937). Using aerial photography and geophysical methods examined the area and found out that the monument occupies a much larger area at the expense of the suburbs with low population density.
About ten years ago, scientists from Harvard, the University of Edinburgh and Institute for archaeological research McDonald in Cambridge analyzed the distribution of artifacts and buildings, and came to the conclusion that the tell Brak grew at the expense of migrants settling in the suburbs. Alien lived isolated groups — the mechanisms of integration, then, apparently, absent. The noticeable autonomy of the Central part of the city that housed the bureaucracy.
The oldest city on Earth until recently was considered to be Uruk in the South of modern Iraq. According to legend, it was founded by the Sumerian king Gilgamesh. However, more and more facts indicate that the tel-the Marriage came first.
As the oldest continuously existing cities is considered to be Jericho, located on the West Bank of the Jordan river. British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon, who conducted there in the 1950s, large-scale excavations, believed that he for ten thousand years.
Jericho was founded by sedentary gatherers who lived in huts. Later it formed a large agricultural commune. People surrounded the village walls and put a tower with a height of 8.5 meters, may not be one. Discoveries of recent years have shown that even then the men of Jericho were building public buildings for storage of crops, meetings, and probably temples.