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The work of the Russian scientists may be a breakthrough in physics. We are talking about most on wanted in the history of physics elementary particle — the neutrino. She is suspected of breaking almost all the laws of physics. Expect her to answer the most important questions about the Universe: why matter is more than antimatter, although the Big Bang they were equally? How did the galaxy?
According to scientists, without neutrinos in the Universe besides light there would be nothing, no matter, no people. The trap on her — and this setup cost many tens of millions of dollars — are placed throughout the world, including Germany, USA, China, Japan, Italy, and Russia. But a neutrino enters the network very rarely, good luck can wait for years. The fact that nearly all matter is transparent, figuratively speaking, she avoids any contact, and therefore flies through the Universe, not showing. But from time to time one particle interacts with another by accident, and specialized detectors can detect the signal. But in order to protect the detectors from external noise, they are usually built deep underground, under water or under ice cover. Today, science has learned to detect neutrinos indirect evidence that helped uncover some of its secrets. One of them in 2015, was awarded the Nobel prize. But mysteries of this particle left a lot more. One of them was able to reveal to scientists from LPI, MIPT and the Institute for nuclear research of the Russian Academy of Sciences.
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We were looking for the answer to the question: where and how are born of high-energy neutrinos, — told correspondent “RG” one of the authors of the study, the RAS corresponding member Yuri Kovalev. Over this a long time struggling scientists around the world. The interest is obvious. The fact that such superengine neutrinos are born with the participation of protons only under one condition: the protons must be overclocked to nearly the speed of light. It is very difficult, because the mass of a proton is approximately 2000 times more than electrons. On Earth for such a crackdown to build giant accelerators.
And as they disperse in space? Theorists have long called one of the alleged addresses: the quasars — galaxies with supermassive black holes in the center. When matter falls towards the black hole, protons may be accelerated to nearly the speed of light and be emitted into space. Some of them turn into energetic neutrinos. Theorists have given a lead to search for the neutrino, gamma-rays, which is to be produced along with neutrinos.
Finding a connection of neutrino and gamma radiation science, according to Kovalev, worked for many years. And in 2018 it was announced about luck, was registered simultaneously in the gamma flash and the arrival of neutrinos from one quasar. This only for many years, the result aroused great interest, articles published in the most prestigious journals, convened a big press conference of the national science Foundation. But many reputable scientists met this sensation skeptical. Said that the only event with a single quasar in 10 years, must be confirmed by new evidence. Suddenly this is a coincidence? Time passed, and they never showed up.
This was the situation to the moment when the Russian scientists began to conduct my research. Was put forward a new hypothesis: that it has to be neutrinos with gamma rays, and radio emission of quasars. For its confirmation, the researchers used data from the IceCube neutrino Observatory of an American, buried under two kilometers of ice in Antarctica. The moments of registration of neutrinos, the researchers compared data on the provisions and flashes of radio emission of quasars obtained with radio telescopes around the world and the Russian RATAN-600 of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Karachay-Cherkess Republic.
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And they match, — says Kovalev. — When the recorded neutrinos, we see the flash of the radio emission from the quasar observed in the same direction. All beautifully came together. The probability that coincidence by chance is only 0.2%. Now this result requires detailed theoretical analysis.
This discovery laid the Foundation in order to understand how neutrinos are born in the center of quasars and how it accelerates the protons. Scientists will use in the future is not only American Observatory, and the neutrino telescope BAIKAL.
The study is published in the Astrophysical Journal.
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