Science

Scientists have learned how nanoparticles kill cancer cells

Ученые узнали, как наночастицы убивают раковые клетки

Effect of magnetic nanoparticles on cancer cells human liver studied by the researchers of Baltic Federal University (BFU) to them. Kant and nust “MISIS”. According to the authors, their study may improve the treatment of cancer. The results published in the journal “Nano Сonvergence”.

Thanks to its unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles can be used in theranostics diagnosis and personalized treatment of oncological diseases, and also be an effective contrast agent for MRI in the examination and visualization of tumors.

As is known, human cancer cells can absorb magnetic nanoparticles. This property can be used for therapy of oncological diseases at least three ways: local heating of the tumor when exposed to an alternating magnetic field (magnetic hyperthermia), targeted drug delivery or selective cytotoxic effect of nanoparticles on cancer cells.

The laboratory staff new magnetic materials of BFU them. Kant, using different lines of cancer cells of the liver, we studied the impact of nanoparticles on cell organelles and to get acquainted with the peculiarities of intracellular processes. Such small objects, like nanoparticles, can be easily “eaten” by the cells, but it happens not always – in some cases, the nanoparticles can damage the structure of the cell, get inside and kill her. Adding iron oxide nanoparticles of different shapes in a nutrient medium to the cells, scientists were able to verify the extent and nature of the changes in cell culture.

According to the authors of the study, the behavior of cancer cells depends on the concentration of nanoparticles in solution and, very importantly, from cancer. The fact that different cells differently “answer” to the impact of the same particles. This allows you to create nano-based tool, selectively inhibits cancer cells without damaging healthy ones.

The researchers thoroughly experimentally studied the effect of magnetic nanoparticles of different shapes on cancer cells human liver. They found that nanocubes and nanoclusters of iron oxide is able to activate certain genes that give a “command destruct” cancer cells of the liver. This discovery sheds light on the mechanisms of regulation cell death caused by cytotoxicity of nanoparticles.

“The mechanism of toxic effect is associated with a progressive membrane permeability of lysosomes in hepatocytes, which provokes apoptosis and autophagy “cell death,” explained study co-author, head of the laboratory “Biomedical nanomaterials” National research technical University “MISIS” Maksim Abakumov.

This discovery can be used for therapy or diagnostics of cancer diseases using nanoparticles, the head of the laboratory of new magnetic materials of BFU them. Kant Valeria Rodionova.

Ученые узнали, как наночастицы убивают раковые клетки

“This interdisciplinary project brought together scientists from different fields: physicists, chemists and biologists. Our joint efforts enabled us not only to synthesize unique types of nanoparticles, but also to analyse the mechanisms of specific cellular signaling pathways that they activate in the cell,” she told RIA Novosti.

Kollaboratsii in the scientific world are often crucial in conducting research. Thus, microscopic studies were conducted in the laboratory of Biophysics, headed by Dr. Oleg Lunov, head of laboratory (Institute of physics of the Czech Academy of Sciences). The study also was attended by members of the Russian chemical-technological University. D. I. Mendeleev.

Source:

ria.ru

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