High-voltage source for smokehouse

Greetings, hamsof DIY, and all lovers of home – smoked products!
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниVery often when you build a homemade smoke launchers people are wondering where to get a source of high voltage, which is necessary to create a static field in the smokehouse? Ready to buy high voltage generators – so unreasonably expensive, moreover, it is quite a specific product and is sold not on every corner. Many also believe that such a high-voltage source is inextricably linked with a greater risk, because if 220V from the outlet threat for life, what can we say about the tens of kilovolts required for good Smoking. In fact, speaking of safety, it is worth mentioning that life-threatening is the current passing through the person, not the voltage, it is possible though hands to catch electrical charges and not even feel them – but only if the high-voltage source has a large capacity and, accordingly, may not issue a high current that is critical for health. For Smoking importantly – the creation of static fields, high voltage source will, in fact, work in idle, with no load, and therefore, does not require a lot of power, which could lead to injury when assembling or using the device. Also there is a misconception that to assemble such a device with your hands is very difficult, as must necessarily be able to read electrical schematic and have good soldering skills to fabricate a charge and be able to collect on her electronic chart. Actually, the high-voltage unit 10, 20 can be assembled and not assembling schemes yourself, and use only a few prefabricated modules. As a high-voltage transformer, the details of which will directly generate a high voltage, you can use the ignition coil of the car. Consider this article in more detail how raise their hands a high-voltage unit that can be used not only for the smoker, but also for various high voltage experiments, for example, to get interesting effects – Jacob’s ladder.
First briefly consider the General structural scheme of the device from which it will be assigned blocks and which block the role violenet.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильни To eat the device from the outlet of 220V, terminals for connection to the 220V shown on the leftmost side of the diagram. Next is the power supply that generates the necessary voltage to power the device – Yes, it seems somewhat illogical that the mains voltage first decreases by one order, then had the opportunity already to obtain the desired 10-20kV, but this is the principle of operation of the device. After the power supply is followed by ammeter-voltmeter, which will show the voltage and current consumed by the device. By controlling the current, it will be possible to control the capacity of the smokehouse. After the alternating current supply voltage is supplied to the PWM regulator, whose task is to create rectangular pulses, which will feed the ignition coil and power control. The signal from the PWM controller is fed directly to the primary winding of the ignition coil and the high voltage is removed from its secondary winding. It should be remembered that the static field required for Smoking, is only generated by a constant voltage, and the output from the coil is removed the AC, so the output coil is connected to the multiplier. It not only rectifies the alternating voltage, but also increases its amplitude, that is voltage several times that allows to achieve the desired 10, 20, or even 30, depending on coil and voltage of the power supply. To build a multiplier circuit need only 3 high-voltage diode and three capacitor – these items are not scarce, in addition to their connection do not require a PCB and the entire Assembly will occur to-point wiring. Consider the following details of each separate block of the above scheme.
As power supply you can use any power source with output voltage 12-16V, with the more tension, the more tension can be removed from the output coil. Ideal as a power supply is suitable, for example, a computer power supply or laptop power supply. You also need to pay attention to the power – it should not be too small, because the scheme will consumes about 2-3A at maximum capacity, the power supply must have sufficient current. Or you can use power transformer with a secondary winding on 12-14V, put it after the diode bridge and capacitor for smoothing.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильни After the power supply scheme there is an ammeter combined with a voltmeter – this part is optional, the circuit will work without it, but to see the voltage and flowing in the moment, the current will not be superfluous. In addition, the scheme provides for adjustment of the power, and power can be tracked just on the readings of the ammeter, the larger the current the more power, respectively, the output voltage of the high voltage unit. Here you can apply, for example, arrow heads, they will provide the best visual evidence, or embedded devices, such as in the picture below, they don’t take up much space in the case of the future device.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильни After flowing current measured by ammeter and voltage by voltmeter, power supply voltage is supplied to the PWM controller is perhaps the most important part of the scheme. Assemble a circuit of the PWM regulator can be yourself, using the popular timer IC NE555 or using ready-made module like the picture below – the author chose the second option. The PWM controller has a potentiometer that is used to adjust the power when assembling the device the handle will need to bring out the body, securing with the Board, or atpaw potentiometer and connect it again already on the wires.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильни To find such modules can be easily Ali – they are quite a bit either in shops of radio components. Please note that the PWM controller must generate a pulse frequency of not more than 1.5 kHz for proper operation of the ignition coil. If you are building a PWM controller yourself, then you need to count it at this frequency and if you use a ready-made module, then you have to change the capacitor marked with a pointer to the value of 10 nF, the code marking 103. Initially, most PWM controllers operate at a higher ranges that frequency fell in the audible range, and here, on the contrary you want to reduce it, it can cause a circuit or coil will slightly squeak – but this alteration is necessary to the proper operation of the ignition coil.
Let us focus on what is PWM and how is the power adjustment. The module input is energized by DC voltage and output the rectangular pulse are removed, their appearance can be like the picture below.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниAnd maybe that’s the same as here.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниVaries (depending on the rotation of the potentiometer) duty cycle, aka the duration, it is also the pulse width and the duty cycle. In the first picture the pulse duration is short, therefore, the power applied to the coil will be small, and on the second picture, the duration is much longer and corresponds to a fill factor of 50% while achieving a maximum voltage output of the coil. If still further increase the fill factor, power will on the contrary be reduced, and the coil can start to heat up, so to excite the ignition coils need to use the duty cycle from 0 to 50%. PWM regulators have found wide application due to its high efficiency, because in the process they are not heat almost.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниThe ignition coil can be used almost any – they are easy to buy, for example, avtorazborka. The only selection criterion is that the coil was defective and it was easy to connect the wires. Thick red wire coming from the coil is its high voltage output, it is removed tension.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниNext, a few words about the multiplier. For its construction you need to use high-voltage diodes, rated for at least 15 000В find such diodes in a microwave oven, and buy in service on home appliances repair, where they will gladly sell. The capacitors must also be rated for a voltage of less than 15 000В, their capacity should be approximately equal to 470 pF, the scatter capacity can be large without loss of efficiency of the multiplier. Illustrative connection diagram of diodes and capacitors you can see in the picture below.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниAfter Assembly the conclusions of the diodes and capacitors must be carefully, pour a hot melt adhesive or epoxy, to avoid breakdowns between them.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниGeneral view of the structure Assembly. Before installing in the case you can enable it and test – if it looks right, immediately after turning on you will hear “rustle”, produced by the high voltage means coil and the multiplier are working. Can bring to each other, high voltage leads and see a small arc, but don’t short-circuit the high voltage output.
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниAfter this, the design is going in a spacious plastic enclosure, all connections propisyvayutsya for greater reliability and fault protection. On the front panel to place the ammeter-voltmeter, power regulator and switch. The side or rear of the case is output high voltage output, and also in case start voltage. Despite the fact that the power of the ignition coil is not enough to kill, it is not necessary to touch her findings or conclusions of the multiplier – will be very painful. A good build!
Высоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильниВысоковольтный источник напряжения для коптильни


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