Furnace business in Russia has always been held in high esteem. Potters were famous for some of the most important masters on a par with the professional architects and painters. Needless to say about the importance of ovens in the life of the Russian people, when it was customary to throw in everyone even the poor house.
Offer you to get acquainted with real Russian traditions of furnace case, partially restored from the previous lost. Be warned in advance that many of the names of the parts of the furnace are not used today. For explanation of the proposed scheme Russian stove called its elements.
- Full-bodied ceramic bricks;
- Wood beams, rails, slats;
- Sheet felt, thickness 1-1,5 cm;
- Accessories for formwork (plywood, boards, strips);
- Clay, sand.
The list of tools
- Screwdriver or drill;
- Hammer with nails, a mallet;
- A hacksaw or jigsaw;
- A long knife;
- Rammers, chemari (wooden clappers for Adobe solution).
Step-by-step process of making of the Russian stove
Proceed to build the furnace with the device of its Foundation or opecia. Spread on the prepared ground or floor ceramic solid bricks, limiting the size of the stove. Then you need to make a powerful frame box solid wood. Better than oak for this case does not exist. Beams and lintels are prepared in advance in woodwork or carpentry, where double-checking all of connection.
Two beams-rails exhibited a number of crossbars. Their tongue-and-groove connection, and not need fixing with nails. The box turns hollow, and it is suitable for storing utensils, stove – pokers, the tongs, Pamela.
Top of box covered with a dry solid Board thickness of 30-40mm. Here you can use sexual planed Board without any coating (varnish, paint).
On top of the boxes of bars formwork for the furnace. The shape of the arch in front of the furnace is set to a carved wood arch.
Next you need to put the wheels. These are prefabricated arches, forming the firebox (fuel vault of the sky) of the furnace. Collect them from separate bruskov, strapped metal plates to the screws. The curve has the form of a semicircular ducts assembled from several arches, the initial of which is tapered to the output of the kiln. Oblivium the design boards of sufficient thickness to withstand a lot of weight.
Next do the formwork for peretrubja. It also has the shape of a semicircle, only a larger diameter and with the outlet under the chimney. Assemble both boxes. This will be the inner hollow part of the furnace.
The base of the furnace insulated sheet with felt. Daubed it with clay on both sides, and sprinkle a thin layer of sand.
The side of casing fasten the sides of the furnace, if necessary fixing them long screws.
For the next layer will need ash. She will perform the role of insulation in the insulation. Ash, you can dial from the ash box of the furnace or of an extinct fire, previously passed his sieve. Due to this the insulation in the Russian furnace before even melt metal for jewelry.
Put the lower insulation layer of pure ash and the top cover it with a mixture of ash and sand. The time to prepare the tool for sealing clay.
Prepare tool to prepare a clay solution. Clay is better for him to take in career or in an industrial mine developments. There you are guaranteed to get pure material with no impurities, which is suitable for high temperature furnace. Saturated clay layers consist of a dense plastic homogeneous breed structure. Stones and sand in it should not be.
For the manufacture of Adobe bricks make a wooden frame from reek and plywood base. It should be removable, and easily separated from the plywood. The bricks are made in the following way: superimposed clay, and compacted wooden mallets, trambovkami until, while on the surface will remain a footprint. Such a seal is obtained clearly verified by the size of the bricks of a given shape.
Clay bricks are not dried and immediately transferred to the place of installation directly on the form. The finished block from the mold, the edges cut with a knife, the surface is sprinkled with ash from sticking to the formwork cover the response form and turn it over.
The base of the fire chamber of the furnace is laid out such bricks, sprinkled with several layers of clay and compacted. At the base decided to do a small bias towards the mouth, to improve the furnace of firewood.
The next step is to install inside furnace casing kruzhala and peretrubja. These elements prosypayutsya small portions of clay and trebuutsya to the top of the furnace. There is some thickening of the clay layer, align flat area under the couch.
The stove is almost ready. It took about 6.5 cubic meters of clay (the size of the body of KAMAZ).
A few days later you can remove the formwork. The exterior formwork is dismantled from the outside, and the internal deal team on the boards, and pulled through the furnace. Long knife beveled arch shape and the mouth is smoothed walls of the firebox so that there are no obstacles draught and air circulation in the oven.
The outer wall of the furnace is additionally compacted with mallets after removal of a timbering, and also smoothed. At this stage cut out items such as small stoves and embossed decoration.
Drying clay does not have to be fast. Due to excessive temperature and low humidity in the summer can go cracks in the walls of the furnace, which will lead to the smoke hut. To avoid this, the clay is necessary to cover with plastic wrap, which will trap moisture and will not let it to evaporate quickly.
After drying, the oven decided to whitewash, and decorate with bright colors, contrasting with a neutral white background. This is a classic technique of building a real Russian furnace, which has been used for centuries in Russia, and was the pride and great value to people.