Religion

“Where are the palaces? Was namediterator!”: the life and renunciation of the Dalai lamas

Today it is considered good manners as an old man grumble to the higher Orthodox clergy, paprikov its members a life of luxury, as well as to estimate the approximate number of “Breguet”, yachts and “Maybach” in each diocese. In the example of the clergy often lead the modest life of the Dalai lamas living spiritual food, not material.

And here you have some stories about the luxurious life of the adherents of the Mahayana, that you are not too idealized.

For many Buddhism is a rejection of many benefits, austerity and complete unselfishness and self-sacrifice. The Dalai Lama as leader of Buddhists and their Supreme authority, should serve as an example to all and, of course, just has to be indifferent to comfort and luxury. However, history does not remember among the senior Buddhist priests, disinterested and poor philosophers, living in a damp cave.

For Tibet, the Dalai Lama, for many centuries, was not only a spiritual but also a political leader and Supreme commander. Of course, like any other rulers, lamas built palaces, hired servants and surrounded himself with luxury.

The first Dalai Lama was in 1578 Gelugpa Lama Sonam Gyatso convert to Buddhism warlike Mongolian tribe of tomatos, led by their Khan Hamdoud. In honor of the finding of the new faith by the Mongols was assembled a Kurultai of notable people, which invited and Lama Sonam Gyatso.

During the feasts that followed one another, a monk, and Han wasn’t tired to pay each other compliments, and it ended up that the Lama gave Khan the title of Brahma – the Lord of religion, and the Khan of the entire Mongol wide soul gave Sonam Gyatso a Golden seal with the inscription “the Seal of Vajradhara-the Dalai Lama. Let there be victory!”.

From this point on Sonam Gyatso began to call himself the Dalai Lama III. Why just a third? The monk just has honored the memory of his two predecessors retroactively elevating them to the highest rank of the clergy. In addition, each of the Supreme Lama was the reincarnation of the previous one and it would be ugly if the Dalai Lama is reincarnated from some Gendun Gyatso, the usual high lamas.

The first official head of the Buddhists never returned to his homeland in Tibet, until his death in 1588 enjoying the hospitality of the lords of Inner Mongolia.

About the life of Dalai Lama IV is little known, and nothing interesting during his reign did not happen. Much more the outstanding personality was the fifth in order of the head of the Buddhists, Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso. The representative of the higher clergy was concentrated in the hands of not only religious but also secular power.

What the Dalai Lama V, and built the famous Potala Palace – the residence of the Supreme ruler of Tibet, located in Lhasa. The Palace, more similar in appearance to the mighty fortress, was the home of the Dalai lamas since 1649 to 1959, while the Dalai Lama did not leave him because of the Chinese occupation of Tibet.

The Potala Palace – the highest seat of the rulers of the world, as the complex is situated at altitude 3 767 meters above the sea level. Construction began in 1645, and in 1649 in a huge building on the hill Marpo Ri moved himself the chief priest, and all the government and clergy of Tibet.

The first building of the complex, the Potala became the white stone Palace Potrang Carpo, which was rebuilt and changed for 20 years after the death of its founder. After the completion of the construction works has begun construction Potrang Marpo – the red Palace that served as repositories of sacred texts and relics, and places of reception, has no spiritual dignity.

The total height of the Potala is 117 meters, while the tallest building has 13 floors. Halls for prayers, which in the two palaces was somewhat impressed by the richness of its decoration. Grand gifts of Chinese emperors unabashedly “invested” in the walls, floors and ceilings of the Palace. Gold, ivory, precious and semi-precious stones, silk – here you can find all that rich celestial Empire.

Some of the curtains of the large hall of the Palace – a gift of Emperor Kangxi of the Qing dynasty, was created a whole year. For hard work in their manufacturing has built a special workshop in the center of which housed a room with dozens of embroiderers.

The Dalai Lama too often left the Potala and always came back to the Palace, dead or alive. Among the walls, halls and galleries of the White and red palaces are 8 tombs, where they found the rest all dead rulers of order.

The tomb of the Builder of the Potala, the Dalai Lama V, the most luxurious. Funerary pagoda decorated 3 721 kg of gold, lots of precious stones and rare wood species. Contemporaries claimed that the tomb of the fifth ruler of Tibet left half of the wealth of the world.

But, the magnificent Potala seemed the Dalai Lama VII is boring and cramped, so in 1755, the builders had laid the first stone of the new complex, which received the name Norbulingka. The work was done almost 30 years and ended in a Grand building already at the Dalai Lama VIII in 1783.

Since the completion of Norbulinka, the complex became the summer residence of Dalai lamas, while the cold season they have preferred to the Potala. Norbulingka is located on 36 hectares, of which 3.6 square kilometers is the Park that surrounds the Palace buildings.

During the summer the complex includes 5 palaces: a three-storey Kelsang Potrang laid down first, Takil Potrang is the brainchild of the Dalai Lama VIII, the Golden Linka and Chensel Potrang, built by the Dalai Lama XIII and Migur Potrang completed before the invasion of the Chinese army in the 50-ies of XX century.

None of the Palace of Norbulinka not deprived of luxury – like halls of the Potala, its premises are decorated with frescoes, and silk curtains, ceilings decorated with precious wood and gold and the furnishings are dazzling luxury. It is also worth adding that in the numerous prayer rooms of the palaces were of the statues of Buddha made of pure gold, decorated with precious stones.

Were not strangers to the Dalai Lama and worldly distractions. In the Park of Norbulingka was built theatre pavilion Khamsum, Cynon where given concerts and theatrical performances. Around the Palace stood two rows of walls – exterior indicating the limits of the complex and inner – surrounded the private apartments of the Supreme Lama.

Through a carefully guarded gate in the second wall to enter only those close to the Dalai Lama and his guests. But for the first wall visitors don’t feel free – here were a set of strict rules and strict dress code. Even in the XX century the entrance to the residence in European clothes, hats and shoes were strictly forbidden.

The protection of Norbulinka provided a huge state guards, which helped the Tibetan Mastiff. The external wall was divided into zones, each of which controlled a huge aggressive dog, tied a long rope from Yak to the ring, immured in the brickwork.

Generally, the dogs enjoyed a special honor for all the owners of Potala and Norbulinka. Specifically for the entertainment of the nobility, including the Dalai lamas, was bred a small ornamental breed the Lhasa Apso. These animals in a large number of inhabited palaces, freely moved through the halls and the Park, slept on cushions decorated with precious embroideries.

It would seem – live and enjoy, but only one of the rulers, the Dalai Lama XIII, lived a long and carefree life. All the others died very early and suddenly suspicious. It is possible that they were simply persecuted, but not positive. The current head of Buddhism, the Dalai Lama, fled from the Palace in 23 years, also not having time to really partake of the pleasures of Royal life.

In the early 50-ies, the most progressive of all the rulers of Tibet, was built in Norbulingka new Villa, which has already felt some impact of the West, and not particularly ashamed of its poor people, bought a few limousines. So you can appreciate the absurdity of this expensive purchase is necessary to underline that Tibet was not suitable for cars of VIP-class roads, and the Dalai Lama moved exclusively on off-road Land Rover.

After Tibet was invaded by China, the owner of Potala and Norbulinka settled in India, where he leads the humble life of a Buddhist monk. The only thing that can afford the Dalai Lama is staying in five-star hotels during his trips around the world.

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