American scientists have identified microRNA that promotes regeneration of hair and may in the future become the basis for the development of drugs against baldness. The study is published in the journal Science Advances.
Modern methods of treatment of hair loss, ranging from invasive surgery and ending with chemical treatments are expensive and not always effective.
Hair growth depends on the health of the dermal papillae cells (DS cells), which regulate the growth cycle of the hair follicle. Recent studies have shown that hair follicles do not disappear in areas of baldness, but just compressed. Scientists believe that if in these areas activate the cells of the papillae, the follicles can recover.
Biologists from the University of North Carolina in laboratory experiments, cultured DS cells in flat layers and spheroids are three — dimensional cellular structures, which recreated the natural microenvironment of cells.
In experiments on mice the scientists looked at how quickly the hair grows back in rodents, treated with 2D – and 3D-cultured DS cells in the keratin skeleton and compared the results with commercial drug hair loss Minoxidil.
The best result was with spheroidal frames. In mice, treated with 3D-DS-cells, 15 days fully recovered 90 percent of the scalp.
“3D cells on the keratin skeleton showed the best results, as a spheroid mimics the microenvironment of the hair and keratin, the frame acts as an anchor, holding them where they are needed — presented in a press release from the University, the head of research Chen Ke (Ke Cheng), distinguished Professor of regenerative medicine. But we were also interested in how the DS-cells control the process of follicle growth, so we examined exosomes, in particular, ekzogennye microRNAs from their surroundings”.
Exosomes are tiny sacs secreted by cells that play an important role in intercellular communication. These bags contain microRNAs — small molecules that regulate gene expression.
The authors have studied the composition of miRNAs in actsoma obtained both from the 2D and 3D DS-cells, and found that the most important role in hair regeneration is played by the molecule miR-218-5p, which enhances the molecular way responsible for stimulating growth of the hair follicle.
“Cell therapy using 3D-cells can be an effective tool for the treatment of baldness, says Chen. — MicroRNAs can be used in drugs based on small molecules. These molecules need to grow, save and enter in the affected area”.
Scientists experimentally confirmed that the increase in miR-218-5p promotes growth of the hair follicle, and its inhibition leads to loss of function of follicles. The authors believe that in the future the use they found microRNAs will allow you to create a cream or lotion for the restoration and growth of hair.