10 secrets of nature that scientists have failed to disclose

Although modern science is far advanced in understanding of the laws of nature, there are many things to explain that scientists are simply unable. In our review of ten seemingly simple questions, the answers to which yet.

1. Why do some mammals returned to the water

Science claims that some sea animals have evolved limbs, which allowed them to move on the land. But why some of these animals, such as the direct ancestors of whales and seals, have moved back into the water remains unknown. For terrestrial animals is much more difficult from an evolutionary point of view to go back to sea than Vice versa. This is what is puzzling scientists all over the world.

2. Cow during meals will always rotate to the North or South

Usually no one is watching grazing cows, but when a team of scientists has carefully examined thousands of satellite images Google Earth, it showed unknown for millennia fact. Cows always turn my head to the magnetic poles of the Earth (North or South), when they graze or rest. It remains unchanged regardless of wind or other factors. No one knows why this is happening. Although it has long been known that some animals have an “internal compass”, for the first time this was discovered in large mammals. Also strange is that the closer cows are to the poles, the less accurate they are guided. This phenomenon occurs on all continents of the Earth.

3. Alkaloids in plants

Plants often produce substances that have animals, use them for food, rather strange effect. These substances called alkaloids, and one of the most common species is morphine. Scientists have identified about 7000 different types of alkaloids in plants. Although modern science has been able to study in detail those chemicals, why they began to be produced in plants is a mystery. Some believe that, in addition to external reasons (such as plant protection against herbivores), the alkaloids may be useful for regulation of the metabolism of the plants themselves.

4. Why do flowers grow all over the planet

Flowering plants are found worldwide, regardless of climate. Interestingly enough, it was not always so. Flowering plants about 400 million years ago, fairly quickly replaced by other species, and today they make up about 90 percent of all plant species. This problem all his life has tried to solve Charles Darwin, calling it “terrible secret”. The rapid development of the flowers soon after they appear on the Ground contradicted the theory of slow evolution by natural selection.

5. Why near the equator reigns the diversity of life forms

Traveling from the colder regions of the planet to the equator, it is easy to see that life is becoming more diverse. 200 years ago, Prussian Explorer Alexander von Humboldt found that biological diversity increases the closer to the equator, while becoming more diverse nature, human culture and disease. For example, now every time a scary new viral diseases seem to appear in Africa or South America near the equator. There are about three dozen theories to explain this phenomenon, but they often contradict each other.

6. The paradox of the phytoplankton

Phytoplankton — the class of organisms that occur in large bodies of water and includes a wide range of different subspecies. Essentially, it is floating plants, which are the worldwide. A huge variety of these organisms calls into question the theory of evolution and natural selection. Lack of resources makes it impossible to survive in the ecosystem of such a large number of different organisms. Nevertheless they exist.

7. As Argentine ants create colonies on different continents

Argentine ants at first glance does not differ from other representatives of this species. But they are the only inhabitants of the Earth except man, who managed to colonize three continents. All three supercolony of Argentine ants in Europe, South America and Asia are inhabited by ants that have the same genetic traits and are essentially a single population.

But puzzling scientists is not so much its habitat, as a social structure. Argentine ants recognize their counterparts in other continents, but aggressive towards ants of other species. In addition, modern genetic code ant has not changed for thousands of years. This is surprising, because organisms outside of their native environment, tend to quickly change.

8. Mysterious human ancestor

The genealogy of modern man carefully studied for many years. Although the first humans appeared long ago, scientists now have a fairly good idea about the ancestors of Homo Sapiens. At least so it seemed until, while scientists have not found traces of the existence of a whole new species of ancient humans. When the scientists studied the DNA of the “Denisov man”, I found traces of an unknown species, which was beyond identification.

It should be noted that Denisovskaya hominids themselves surrounded by mystery, but science at least knows who they were and where they came from. The same cannot be said about the unknown, which obviously multiplied denisovans about 30 000 years ago and which left a clear imprint in the DNA of the denisovans. In principle, all that is known about it, is that he gave the denisovans strange set of teeth, which is nowhere else found in the animal world.

9. Animals that can live without oxygen

Almost every organism on Earth lives through oxygen — some organisms consume it, and other produce. Recently, scientists announced a shocking discovery deep in the Mediterranean sea were found the first oxygen-free animals. Although some bacteria and other simple organisms can live without oxygen, it was previously unheard of for complex multicellular animals. Three types of such creatures belonging to the marine invertebrate group loricifera, was found 3.5 km depth. Scientists do not have a clue about how they evolved.

10. Sexual reproduction

In addition to some microbes and plants, all living beings in the world reproduce sexually. People take it for granted, but in fact it is a huge evolutionary anomaly. After all, half of all species (males) are not able to procreate, but use the same amount of resources from the environment. Why spent so much effort to develop a mechanism that has obvious disadvantages in the long run? Therefore, sexual relations are still a phenomenon that scientists cannot fully understand.

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