Science

Viagra, saccharin and other “scientific errors”, which unexpectedly proved to be a revolutionary discovery

Many great discoveries forever changed the world, made completely by accident. So, having set a clear goal, but received an unexpected result, do not rush to be disappointed. It’s possible you made a discovery that will exceed the original plan and will help you get into the story.


Artificial dyes

Until the mid-nineteenth century, the clothing could afford only very wealthy people. All the dyes used by man were of natural origin and was difficult to manufacture and is very unstable.

A revolution in the world of dyes occurred unexpectedly in 1856. August Wilhelm Hofmann, Professor of the British Royal chemical College, instructed William Henry Perkin, one of his best students, to explore a new substance isolated from coal tar. Aniline, namely the so-called new substance, Hoffmann wanted to turn into quinine, indispensable in malaria-affected the British colonies.

The obtained resin black powder student-chemist Perkin was placed in the water and to his surprise saw the liquid on the eyes was painted a bright blue color. Experiments with tissues showed that the obtained dye fine dye silk and cotton materials.

William Perkin called dye moviedom, dropped out of College and opened the first factory for the production of synthetic dyes, which made him a very wealthy man. Later from coal tar was learned to obtain the dyes of other colors, which greatly crippled the business of manufacturers of natural dyes.

Sugar substitute

Chemist Constantin Fahlberg from the American Johns Hopkins University in 1879, researched petroleum bitumen. One night the scientist hurried home and left the lab, forgetting to wash my hands. The house came to dinner, Fahlberg was surprised to see that everything he touched acquires a sickly sweet taste.

Back in the University laboratory, the chemist began to examine the retort used in experiments before, and found that sweet was the mixture of ammonia, chloride of phosphorus and ortho-sulphobenzoic acid. Thalberg called his discovery saccharin and a month later, in collaboration with their supervisor, Professor Ira Ramzanom, presented to the scientific community report the synthesis of a new substance.

Special impression on the scientific world, this discovery is not produced and its value is appreciated only when Thalberg opened plant for the production of synthetic sugar. The substance rapidly became popular doctor prescribed it for migraines, and in 1907, saccharin was used as a sugar substitute in foods for diabetics.

Radiography

November 8, 1895, physicist Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen stayed in his lab until late. Leaving the scientist noticed that the screen of barium sinergistom those used in experiments with cathode tubes, glows in the dark. Roentgen noticed that I forgot to turn off one of the tubes. After turning off the cathode, are located behind the screen, the glow was gone.

Phenomenon is interested in physics, and he began to place in front of the tube different substances and objects to see, they reflect the rays or miss. Placed in front of the screen of the x-rays and his hand received on the screen of her educated image. By placing the limb over the plates, the inventor got an x-ray.

The first tangible result of the work was the image of a hand of the spouse of physics. His scientist was presenting in lectures and congresses held in different countries of the world. In 1901 Wilhelm Röntgen was awarded the Nobel prize, and its opening is called one of the most significant in the history of medicine.

Antibiotics

In 1922, the bacteriologist of the UK Alexander Fleming during a cold put the mucus from your nose in a Petri dish, where the culture of Micrococcus lysodeicticus. After a couple of days he remembered the Cup and decided to wash it, but was surprised to see that the slime had destroyed some of the bacteria. So it was discovered lysozyme — an antibacterial substance produced by the human body.

In 1928 Fleming also accidentally made another discovery. Back in the lab from vacation, he saw that one of them forgotten on the table of the plates with a culture of Staphylococcus covered with mold. Upon closer examination, the bacteriologist saw that the mold, or rather the fungus Penicillium notatum, completely destroyed the bacteria on the plate. So penicillin was discovered, which today saves millions of people each year worldwide.

Viagra

Despite all the advances in medical science, such a disease as erectile dysfunction, remained undefeated even at the end of the twentieth century. The problem was solved by the German scientists Pfizer pharmaceutical company engaged in developing medicines for angina. The attacks of this disease impairs the supply of oxygen to the heart, therefore it was necessary to find a drug that expands blood vessels.

The experimental sample of UK-92480 repeatedly betrayed the hopes of the pharmacists not giving the desired effect. Moreover, after taking the drug, many volunteers complained of muscle pain. Another side effect, which at first did not pay any attention, there was an improvement in patients erection. Moreover, some of the men’s strength returned after a long break.

New clinical trials with thousands of volunteers 3, designed to study the effect proved more successful, and in 1998, pharmacies of the world the first “Viagra”.

Like it? Want to be aware of updates? Subscribe to our page in Facebook and a channel in the Telegram.

Show More

Related Articles

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Back to top button