DIY

Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper

Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format  Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper In this article, the wizard will tell us how you can build a V-Plotter that very accurately reproduces images on large paper sizes. Such a plotter will be of interest to a large number of people, because with the help of it you can both draw a portrait and draw a diagram on large sheets. You can use A1 paper and smaller with the plotter.
Let's watch a short video demonstrating the plotter's operation.
Tools and materials: – Arduino Mega 2560; -RAMPS 1.4 Controller; -A4988 stepper driver module, 2 pcs.; – NEMA 17 stepper motor – 2 pcs; -SG90 servo motor; -Board size 780×1200 mm; -GT2 6mm belt 2000mm; -GT2 Timing pulley 80 teeth – 2 pcs; -Connector for cable XH 2.54 mm – 4P 20 cm double connector for wire cable; -Ribbon cable 2 meters x 8P;
-Two-core wire 2 meters;
-Empty plastic coil;
-Cable gland with a diameter of 8-12 mm; -16pcs round neodymium magnets 10mm x 2mm;
-Programming cable Arduino length 1.8 m;
-Fasteners;
-A1 paper;
Step one: about the plotter
V-Plotter is a kind of CNC plotter that draws text and images by moving the pen on a vertical surface. It has a simple mechanical design, including:
One board.
Two stepper motors with pulleys and belts.
Micro servo for lifting the handle.
Pair of counterweights.
The master had a 780 x 1200 mm chalkboard that his children no longer use. It is he who uses it as the basis of the structure.
The plotter dimensions are as follows:
Width: 550 mm.
Height: 800 mm.
Belt length: 1000 mm.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Step two: preparing the board
The board, including the aluminum frame, has a size of 780 x 1200 mm. Board width 30 mm. On the one hand, he drills holes for stepper motors in the corners. The distance between the centers of the two holes is 600 mm.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Installs stepper motors on the back of the board.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Installs pulleys on motor shafts. The pulley has 80 teeth. The tooth pitch of the GT2 80 pulley is 2 mm per tooth, so its diameter is 80×2/PI = 50.955 mm.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Drills 4 holes for mounting and installs the Arduino Mega 2560 + RAMPS 1.4 board in the center of the top of the board.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Step Three: Assembling the Pen Holder Assembly
The main components for assembling the Pen Holder are: fitting, cable gland, strap and nuts.
 Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format First, he cut the 2-meter timing belt into two pieces, each 1 meter long. On one side of the belt, using a cable tie, I secured a metal chain. I fixed a fitting on the other side of the belt.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper I installed two cable glands inside the coil. Then I drilled holes and installed four screws.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Then I glued the servo at the bottom of the plastic coil (from the side of the metal cable gland) and soldered 3 wires from the servo to the RAMPS 1.4 controller. Finally, a handle holder was attached to the stepper motor pulleys. Checked node movement.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format During drawing, the pen holder shook and vibrated, so he slightly modified the node.
Added several counterweights – M10 nuts.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper I fixed a plastic wheel 100 mm in diameter and 10 mm thick.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Glue the servo to the wheel and adjust the servo arm so that it is as close to the nib as possible.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Sets the pencil and checks the work.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format  Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper According to the master, the work of the device has become much better.
Step Four: Connection
The main controllers of the vertical plotter are Arduino Mega 2560 and RAMPS 1.4. They drive 2 stepper motors via A4988 drivers and one servo motor. The wizard gives a sketch of the device connection.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper For the plotter to work properly, the two stepper motors must rotate in opposite directions, so he had to swap the right motor wires. Stepper motors are connected left to nameplate X, right to nameplate Y.
RAMPS 1.4 has four plug connectors for connecting a servo drive: D11, D6, D5 and D4. The pen lift servo is driven by the D11 pin.
As for the power supply of the servo, he connected the Vcc and 5V pins together with a jumper. The 5V and Vcc connectors for powering the servo are located next to the RESET button. This allows the board to be powered from the Arduino board. In the photo below, the arrow indicates the location of the jumper.
 Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper For programming, he used a cable from an HP printer about 1.8 m long. On the back of the board he fixed the cable channel and laid the wires in the cable channel.
 Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Step Five: Firmware
The plotter used the Makelangelo firmware. Makelangelo firmware can be used in many different controllers and kinematic systems.
Control styles supported

 #define POLARGRAPH 1 //polargraph like Makelangelo #define TRADITIONALXY 3 //gantry 3 axis setup. #define COREXY 2 //gantry CoreXY setup. #define ZARPLOTTER 4 //4 motor, x-shaped 2D motion #define SKYCAM 5 //4 motor, x-shaped 3D motion #define DELTA 6 //3 arm delta robot, rotary action. untested. #define STEWART 7 //6 arm stewart platform, rotary action. untested. #define ARM3 8 //3DOF palletizing robot arm. #define SIXI 9 //6DOF robot arm. #define TRADITIONAL6 10 //6 axis machine, no restrictions. #define SCARA 11 //2 axis SCARA. & lt; br & gt;  

Microcontrollers Supported

  #define BOARD_RUMBA 1 //Reprap discount Rumba board #define BOARD_RAMPS 2 //Mega2560 + Ramps 1.4 #define BOARD_SANGUINOLULU 3 //Sanguinolulu #define BOARD_TEENSYLU 4 //TeensyOSARD 5/Wemos D1 R2 + CNC Shield v3 (see board_wemos.h) #define BOARD_SIXI_MEGA 6 //Arduino Mega + custom shield for Sixi 2 robot #define BOARD_CNCV3 7 //Mega2560 + CNC Shield v3 #define BOARD_ESP32 8 //Clever + Marginally Polargraph PCB.  

The wizard has made several changes to the Mekalangelo firmware to be compatible with this plotter.
-Configuration parameters for vertical plotter: “configure.h”.
– Plotter type: Polargraph
– Controller: Arduino Mega 2560 + RAMPS 1.4
– No LCD display

 //------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------ //Robot styles supported //------------- -------------------------------------------------- --------------- #define MACHINE_STYLE POLARGRAPH //----------------------------- -------------------------------------------------//LCD panels supported //-------------------------------------------- ---------------------------------- #define LCD_TYPE LCD_NONE //---------- -------------------------------------------------- ------------------ //Microcontrollers supported //-------------------------- -------------------------------------------------- - #define MOTHERBOARD BOARD_RAMPS  

-Configuration parameters for polarograph: “robot_polargraph.h”
– Version: MAKELANGELO_5
– With manual lift.
– Without LCD – Without SDCard – Without limit switches.

  #define MACHINE_HARDWARE_VERSION MAKELANGELO_5 //Change me #define MACHINE_HAS_LIFTABLE_PEN .. ............................................... #if MACHINE_HARDWARE_VERSION == MAKELANGELO_5 #ifndef MAX_SEGMENTS #define MAX_SEGMENTS (32) #endif //# define USE_LIMIT_SWITCH //# define HAS_SD //# define HAS_LCD #endif  

-Stepper motor and pulley settings: “configMotors.h”.
– He used NEMA 17 stepper motors with step angle: 1.8 °. Thus, the number of steps required for the stepper motors to complete 1 full revolution: 200 steps/revolution.
– A4988 microstepping setting: 1/16. (The A4988 driver allows this value to be increased by controlling intermediate steps and has five micro-step modes (1 (full), 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16).)
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format – The plotter used a GT2 timing belt with a pitch of 2 mm per tooth and GT2 pulleys- 80 with 80 teeth. The value 80×2 = 160mm Pulley pitch means the circumference of the pulleys (pulley diameter = 160/PI = 50.9mm) or the distance the timing belts move when the stepper motors make 1 revolution.

 #pragma once/* * Motor settings shared between various kinematic systems *///choose one of the following #define NORMAL_MOTOR_STEPS 200 //1.8 degrees per step //stepper motor drivers can use microstepping to split steps into fractions of steps for greater precision ... //A4988 drivers (Marginallyclever.com default) use 16x. #ifndef MICROSTEPS #define MICROSTEPS (16.0) #endif //Using GT2 timing belt, which has 2mm teeth. //I also use GT2-80 pulleys which have 80 teeth. //80 * 2 means the pitch is 160. #define PULLEY_PITCH (160.0) #if NORMAL_MOTOR_STEPS == 200 #define DEFAULT_FEEDRATE (180.0) #define DEFAULT_ACCELERATION (150.0) #define DEGREES_PER_STEP (1.8) #endif #if define DEFAULT_FEEDRATE (100.0) #define DEFAULT_ACCELERATION (150.0) #define DEGREES_PER_STEP (0.9) #endif  

– Arduino Mega 2560 pins setup: “board_ramps.h”
Please note that RAMPS 1.4 has four servo plugs mapped to pins D11, D6, D5 and D4. This unit used pin D11 to control the handle lift servo.

  #define MAX_BOARD_SERVOS (1)/* Default & # 58; 4 */#define SERVO0_PIN (11)/* Default & # 58; 11 - Servo 1 */#define SERVO1_PIN (6) #define SERVO2_PIN (5) #define SERVO3_PIN (4)  

Step Six: Software The Makelangelo software is a computer tool containing everything you need to set up and export your vertical plotter print files. It allows you to customize plotter configuration, paper size, pen lift servo setting. In addition, it also has built-in tools for converting images to GCODE and sending them to the plotter controller.
Learn how to use the Makelangego software here.
Open the Makelangelo software and connect to the Arduino Mega 2560. < br> Next, you need to check the direction of movement of the shafts of the stepper motors and the distance of movement.
From the drop-down list, select “Manual Driving” and press the buttons left, right, up, down, with additional travel distances of 1, 10, 100 mm.
Press the Pen up/Pen down buttons to test the servo operation.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Then you need to open the “Setting” tab and set a number of settings.
– Model: Makelangelo (Custom).
– Machine Width: 550 (mm).
– Machine Height: 800 (mm).
– Acceleration: 10 (mm/s²).
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Sets the paper size and fields.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Adjusts the pen and drawing speed. The lift of the handle up/down can be calibrated by adjusting the servo angle, lift speed and “Test” buttons.
Next, you need to click on “Generate art”, select a graph and adjust additional parameters as you like.
Then you need to click “Open File” to select the images. Makelangelo software can convert JPG, PNG, BMP, GIF or DXF/SVG images to GCODE in multiple conversion format styles.
Step Seven: Testing
Wizard wrote https://content.instructables.com/ORIG/FAH /W2EW/KJ2UV8P2/FAHW2EWKJ2UV8P2.xls to simulate a vertical plotter.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper You need to enter the X, Y coordinates, and the Excel template will simulate the position of the pen, as well as the length of the belt from pulleys to feather and from pulleys to counterweights.
To conduct the first test, the wizard clicked the built-in function “Generate art”, then “Your message here “. In the drop-down list, he chooses the size and font, types a message (inscription) and clicks “Start”.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Below is the result.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper
Tested shapes ” Lissajous “from the” Generate art “tab.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Tests the “Spirograph” shape.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large-format paper Drawing after coloring by hand.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper Then the master tried to draw a portrait.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper The result is excellent.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format To work with a photo, you need to export an image in DXF/SVG format from Inkscape with hatch extensions , then open that DXF/SVG file in Makelangelo just by clicking Start to execute.
Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format Everything is ready.
 Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper Vertical plotter for drawing on large paper format  Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper < img class = "aligncenter" alt = "Vertical plotter for drawing on large format paper" src = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1609761281_1-46.jpg"/> Some moments of plotter assembly, as well as a demonstration of its work, you can watch the video.

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