DIY

How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst machine

How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Electrophoric machine, Wimshurst generator – electrostatic generator, that is, an electric machine for generating high voltage, developed by British inventor James Wimshurst. It uses the phenomenon of electrostatic induction, while electrical charges are accumulated on the poles of the machine (Leiden banks), the potential difference across the arresters reaches several hundred thousand volts. Powered by mechanical energy.
Electrostatic machines create high voltage charges without the usual copper wire coils, permanent magnets and switches found in conventional generators. They are made of brass, glass and wood and look more mechanical than electrical.
The most interesting thing about these generators is that you can feel how they work. When you start your Wimshurst machine, you can hear it crackle with energy, you smell the pungent smell of ozone, and you can feel your arm hairs stand on end as the Leyden cans start charging.
James Wimshurst invented the Wimshurst machine in the late 1800s. This is a “simple” high voltage generator that can be used in experiments. It supplanted other devices such as the Holtz and Voss machines. It was one of the first ways to generate high voltage, allowing more or less convenient X-ray imaging at the turn of the century. The Wimshurst machine was replaced in about 1924 by more practical generators, such as the Marx generator, which is still used in laser printers and CRT televisions.
The Wimshurst machine consists of two counter-rotating discs and two Leyden cans ( capacitors). It is most often driven by a handle, but it can also be driven by an electric motor.
In this article, the wizard will show how he designed and built a Wimshurst machine from scratch.
Specifically, this device generates 30,000 volts (calculated using the maximum distance between spark gaps) and several tens of microamperes.
Tools and materials: -Two acrylic sheet 30X30 cm; -Aluminum foil;
-Metal axis;
-O-ring;
-Various fasteners, screws, nuts;
-Bearings;
-Plywood;
– Board;
-Bronze rod;
-Clips “crocodile”;
-Details from fluorescent lamps for Leyden cans;
-3D-printer; -Multimeter; -Soldering iron and solder; -Screwdriver;
-A tool for stripping wires;
-Nippers;
-Pliers; < br> – Insulating tape;
– Ruler;
– Marker;
Step one: principle of operation
The Wimshurst machine can be used in a wide range of experiments, from X-rays to electronic microscope. Here are some specific things that worked from a similar device:
Smoke purifier for air purification from residual smoke (apparently, the master means an ionizer)
When lasers were first invented, they were powered by a Wimshurst machine.
X-ray machine
In the 1930s in Germany, the first electronic the microscope worked on a Wimshurst machine.
Everything that requires a very high voltage, but a small current
In general, the Wimshurst machine is safe due to the extremely low generated currents even with Leiden banks connected. However, precautions must still be taken as it can easily damage electronic devices that are too close.
 How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car The device works as follows.
Start: charging sectors
The machine consists of two dielectric discs. Each disk is divided into sectors. The sectors are metallized. The discs are driven into counter-rotation with equal angular velocity. Work begins with any sector that has a charge, that is, they have an unbalanced amount of positive or negative charge. Let's say the sector on the front has a net negative charge.
This negative sector affects the sector to which it faces on the opposite (back) disk, repelling the negative charge towards the far side of the back sector (since the same charges repel) and leaving the near side with a positive charge (since different charges attract). This process is called electrostatic induction. The Wimshurst machine is called an “influence machine” because the charge in one sector affects the distribution of the charge in the other sector. Despite the fact that the charge distribution in the rear sector is influenced, it still has a negative charge.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907060_1-4.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Neutralizing charge
Fig. 4. shows what happens next to the rear disc that has just been affected. Each disc has a neutralizing rod. At each end of the neutralization strip there is a conductor (brush) that touches the sectors as they pass. The number of sectors is even and the bar touching one sector touches the opposite sector. Thus, the opposite sector also receives a negative charge.
The following figure shows the situation immediately after neutralization of the surface charge on both sectors after the discs are slightly turned away from the brushes. The first sector remains positively charged since the negative charge has just been removed from it by a neutralizing strip. The second sector has just received a negative charge from the neutralizing bar, so it remains negatively charged.
Now we have 3 charged sectors: the original one from which the sequence of events began, the first charged sector and the second charged sector. Then the process is repeated on the following sectors.
Charge accumulation
If you look closely, all negatively charged sectors are directed to the left collector, and all positively charged sectors are directed to the right collector. You can also notice that the sectors that have just passed through any of the charge collectors have received their charge and are now generally neutral. This continues until he reaches the neutralizing brushes, where an effective and neutralizing action will recharge them.
Charge collection
The electrodes do not physically touch the sectors. Instead, they have sharp edges facing the sectors and there is an air gap between them. As an example, consider one of the collectors. A negative charge on the sectors pushes electrons away from the tip, leaving a positive charge. Electrical charges tend to build up around sharp objects. The folded positive charge results in a strong electric field in the gap between charged sectors and collector combs. This strong electric field ionizes the air molecules and makes them conductive, forming a bluish-purple crown near the tip. This conductive air greatly reduces the resistance that air normally has. This leads to the fact that the negative charge on the sectors jumps across the gap to the collector, which again leaves the sectors neutral.
The same process occurs on the right collector, only with opposite charges.
Leiden banks and spark discharge
The rest of the circuit consists of an arrester and two Leyden jars, which are two cylindrical capacitors connected in series. The spark gap is also a capacitor, albeit much smaller than the Leyden jars. It also has a dielectric (air). The spark gap and the Leyden jar circuit are parallel to the collectors. The shunt is often used to easily connect and disconnect Leiden jars.
The charge collected from the sectors charges the Leiden jars and then goes to the spark gap.
 How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car  How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car  How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step two: drives
Initially, the craftsman used two yellow acrylic sheets that were cut with a laser cutter. Unfortunately, he overlooked the need to make a hole in the center. When trying to make holes, they did not work out coaxially.
Then he made two discs of orange acrylic.
The discs have a diameter of 290 mm. The five holes in the center are for attaching the bearing. Each disk has 24 sectors cut from aluminum foil.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car  How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car  How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step three: bearings
The master designed the bearing holder and then 3D printed it … The bearing is installed in the holder and fixed with hot melt glue.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907079_1-20.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907083_1-22.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907083_1-24.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car The master made the axis from a plastic rod.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step four: drive
For the drive, the master has printed two pulleys. The master also printed a handle for rotation.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907051_1-27.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907054_1-29.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907042_1-31.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907054_1-33.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car To transfer torque to the disc shafts, drive belts are installed. Since it is necessary that the discs rotate in different directions, one of the drive belts is installed with a “figure eight”. Those. is twisted during installation.
 How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step fifth: base, uprights
The base is made of plywood. Uses wooden bars for uprights.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907077_1-38.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907046_1-40.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step six: pins, conductors, arresters
Two studs are attached to the base on which Leyden banks will be attached. Copper wire is attached to the top of the studs. She will serve as a guide.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Rods made of pure bronze are bent into a wide U shape. Alligator clips are soldered to each end. Brushes are attached to the crocodile, which should touch the opposite sectors of the disk.
Both in front and behind the neutralizing rods should be located approximately 30-45 ° from the collector combs.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907099_1-45.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Collectors charge (combs) are made of copper wire. The wire is bent with the letter U. 12 copper jumpers are soldered to the straight sections. Then the jumpers are cut off slightly from the edge.
The scallops are attached so that the sharp pins are located opposite the sectors. The scallops, in turn, are connected to a copper wire fixed on the hairpins of Leyden jars.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907071_1-49.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step seven: Leyden jars
Discharge electrodes consist of two bronze rods and cap nuts, which are soldered to them. The nuts need to be ground and polished. When installing, you need to make a gap of about 1.2 cm between them.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car  How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Leiden jars are two layers of aluminum foil wrapped around a section of a fluorescent lamp (glass bulb or tube). One layer from the inside, the second from the outside. This is essentially a capacitor. The device requires two Leiden banks. One he got with a capacity of 0.83 nF, and the second 0.76 nF.
The outer foil of the cans is connected with a copper shunt.
How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-01/1610907051_1-53.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car Step eighth: troubleshooting
Initially, the machine gave out a maximum of 200 volts. Looking closely at the device, he realized that part of the leak was through the metal shaft on which the discs were mounted. The axes touched bronze rods. First he insulated the rods, then replaced the Ost with a dielectric one.
The second factor influencing tension was the number of scallops. He removed all but one of them.
With only one scallop on each side of the collector, the area will be minimum and the voltage maximum.
 How to build a 30 kilovolt Wimshurst car The master is satisfied with the work, and the most important thing in this project is the experience gained.

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