The unipolar motor is driven according to the Lorentz force. A conductor with a current flowing through it, placed in a magnetic field perpendicular to the current, experiences a force in a direction perpendicular to both the magnetic field and the current. This force provides torque around the axis of rotation. Since the axis of rotation is parallel to the magnetic field, and opposite magnetic fields do not change polarity, no commutation is required to continue rotating the conductor. This simplicity is most easily achieved with single turn designs. True, this simplicity makes such engines unsuitable for widespread use. Like most electromechanical machines, a unipolar motor is reversible: if a conductor is rotated mechanically, it will act as a unipolar generator, creating a DC voltage between the two terminals of the conductor. The resulting DC current is the result of the unipolar nature of the design.
For the manufacture of such an engine, you will need the following
Tools and materials:
< a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555273_1-5.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Step first: copper wire
As an example, the craftsman decided to use a spiral shape. Many other shapes are possible and will be presented at the very end.
It is important for the motor to function properly that the weight of the copper wire is well distributed. One end of the copper wire rests on the positive pole of the battery, the other end will balance.
To make a nice spiral, the artist used a marker. The marker diameter is slightly larger than the battery diameter. Wrap the copper wire a few times around the marker.
The copper wire used here does not have a protective layer and is a good conductor. You can also use copper wire with a protective coating, but the insulation must be removed at the contact points.
< a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555305_1-8.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555247_1-10.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Step two: the point of contact
One end of the spiral must be bent so that it relied on the positive contact pad of the battery. In this case, the spiral should rotate freely around the battery.
< a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555307_1-13.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555229_1-15.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Step three: magnets
Neodymium magnets are installed on the negative pole of the battery. In this case, the other end of the wire must touch the magnets.
< a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-02/1612555216_1-18.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> All ready, as soon as you place the structure on the table, the spiral will begin to rotate around the battery.
And at the end video demonstrating the operation of such an engine, and with the process of its manufacture.