DIY

Autonomous station of weather control and watering of plants

Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants This guide integrates the design and assembly process of a stand-alone solar irrigation and monitoring station, which a DIY master made for his home garden.
The station performs several tasks. It collects atmospheric data, soil moisture data, sends it in real time to the cloud for remote monitoring and controls irrigation through a drip irrigation system.
Real-time data from the station can be viewed at the following link:
https://thingspeak.com/channels/1281247
The master himself lives in the city, and his greenhouse is located on the roof of the house.
On its basis, he has already implemented rainwater collection and waste processing. However, one of the main problems is watering the plants. It was necessary to make a system that would work in his absence for several days.
Tools and materials: -ESP8266 D1 Mini-board;
– BME280 temperature and humidity sensor module; – ADS1115 ADC module; – DC-DC SX1308 voltage boost module; – MP1584 step-down DC module; -Solar panel; -TP4056 Charger module; -4pcs. A03400 N-Mosfet; -2pcs. A03401 P-Mosfet; -18650 LiPo battery; -6 resistors of 51 kΩ; -6 resistors of 2 kΩ; -3 capacitive soil moisture sensors; -2x 2-pin JST XH connectors; -3x 3-pin JST XH connectors; – Soldering equipment; -Breadboard; -3D-printer; -Mounting board;
-Fasteners;
-Screwdriver;
-Screwdriver;
Step one: setting up the Thingspeak channel
The first thing you need to do when developing such a project is to set up a cloud data channel and check the connection between the device and the channel. This way, the user will have a consistent log and background information about all the data and behavior of the system as it develops.
You need to start by creating a Thingspeak account and a new channel. Then move on to setting as indicated in the images. You need to pay attention to the channel ID, as well as the write API key and the read API key, as they will need to be registered in the Arduino Sketc.
Once set up, everything is ready to receive and view data, you just need to remember to add the channel information as well as the user's Wi-Fi credentials to the sketch and upload it to the Wemos microcontroller. It is imperative to connect the battery. Since the code is optimized for battery operation, the device will not connect to the Internet until it reads the I2C sensor.
As soon as the board connects to the Internet, the first downloaded data will be visible on the Thingspeak channel. Now you can check the operation of the sensors. You can check them periodically by pressing the reset button, each reset sends 1 position of data. Alternatively, you can simply leave the station on and receive periodic data at 15 minute intervals.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618040371_1-16.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Step second: development of a prototype
The station is based on the ESP8266 D1 Mini microcontroller. This microcontroller is a very compact and convenient way to create IoT devices, however, it does not have as many I/O pins as the Arduino, so you need to use digital sensors that can communicate over a single data bus. Most sensors nowadays are digital and have much higher accuracy than analog sensors. The baseboard includes an I2C bus for installing various sensors, which can be easily replaced or combined with modules for other purposes.
The key functions that the master wanted to implement were atmosphere monitoring, soil monitoring and irrigation management. The solution was to use the ESP8266 board as a control module, and install a BME280 air sensor module, an ADS1115 16-bit analog input module, and a DC module to be able to control the irrigation solenoid valves. In addition, he wanted to be able to turn off the soil sensors when not in use, so he added two N-MOSFETs to switch sensors and an irrigation valve.
Since the device will be solar powered, a TPS4056 BMS module was added and step-down module MP1584 DC-DC.
The wizard designed his weather station to fit completely on half of the breadboard. This was done so that it could be easily modified during operation by adding or removing components.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618040358_1-20.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Step third: development of a modular case
When developing a case, the master was guided by the fact that it should be modular, easy to assemble and modify and, most importantly, economical to manufacture.
The first model of the body was made in the SolidWorks software. Unfortunately, this case was not the best one. The case was assembled by simple installation of parts into each other and the parts did not quite match.
The file for printing this case can be downloaded below.
STEVE_WATERS_Original_Stevenson_Screen_CAD.SLDPRT
 Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618040430_1-24.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants screws.
There are 4 threaded holes in the upper part of the case, into which 4 threaded rods are screwed, and then all subsequent modules are put on these rods. After the last module, 4 nuts fix the parts.
The case is designed so that the bottom cover can be removed without dismantling the rest of the modules
This case has a spacious interior with enough room to accommodate 2 half-size breadboards and an 18650 battery + charger module.
Originally, the craftsman was going to install the solar panel at the top, but then took it outside the greenhouse.
For better Wi-Fi signal reception, the master installed an additional antenna, for which it was necessary to make a hole in the case.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055828_1-26.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055870_1-28.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055807_1-30.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055888_1-36.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Files for printing can be downloaded below.
STEVE_WATERS_Final_Stevenson_Screen_CAD.SLDPRTSTEVE_WATERS_Final_Stevenson_Screen_STL_All_Pieces.STLSTEVE_WATERS_Solar_Panel_Mount_STL.SLDPRTSTEVE_WATERS_Solar_Panel_Mount_CAD.STL
Step four: the protection of soil moisture sensors weatherproof
Despite the fact that the soil moisture sensors are new to the capacitive type, which in the sensing area is not bare metal, their still need to be protected from moisture.
The technician covers the sensor, electronics and wire with epoxy.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station of weather control and watering plants Step five: scheme and code
The principle of the code is as follows:
The station must read and, at regular intervals, report the ambient conditions and soil moisture to the cloud service, as well as autonomously manage irrigation through the drip irrigation system. All the time between reports, to save energy, the system is in sleep mode.
Cloud Platform: Thingspeak
Report interval: 15 minutes
Irrigation: 3 minutes every 15 minutes (1 cycle)
Functional breakdown of the code is as follows:
After waking up, turn on the power to the sensors and turn off irrigation valves.
Read all sensors (ambient conditions and soil moisture) and store their values ​​in memory.
Turn on the Wi-Fi connection and get the latest saved data from the Thingspeak channel.
Update the Thingspeak channel with the latest data and if any soil sensor is below the threshold, set the pending irrigation cycles to 3.
If there were delayed irrigation cycles according to the previous data read from thingspeak, start the irrigation cycle and decrease the counter in the canal, otherwise go to sleep for 15 minutes.
If a watering cycle is on, turn off the Wi-Fi, turn on the valve, and let the water flow for 3 minutes. Then turn off the valve and go to sleep for the remaining 15 minutes.
The program behaves in such a way that the cloud platform controls the watering. The function of manual irrigation control is also implemented through the cloud service.
Code and diagram can be downloaded below.
Steve Waters V1_0 SCH.pdfThingspeak_Irrigation_Station_F1_0.ino
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Step sixth: board
Mounts the board according to the diagram. Even though the board looks rather massive, there is actually a lot of free space under each module, and many of them connect to the same pins.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055859_1-43.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055820_1-46.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055820_1-48.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055874_1-50.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Step Seven: Building
Since the PCB is already installed on 3 posts, it is very easy to install it inside the case. To do this, place it on an empty base board and carefully outline each rack. Then drill the holes and screw the board to the case. Before installing the board into the case, you need to download the code to it and install the battery.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station of weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Step Eight: Station Installation
The station is mounted on an aluminum strip with a hole in the center. A latch is inserted into the hole. The spring mechanism holds the station securely in place and can also be easily removed if necessary.
After installation, you need to connect the sensors, solar panel and drip irrigation.
To install an external solar panel, the master 3D-printed a bracket that is easy to move and adjust.
 Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous weather station control and watering of plants Step nine: testing
After testing for some time, the master found out some details.
First, the solar panel is enough to charge the battery and operate the device.
Secondly, moisture sensors are not entirely accurate (although they are sufficient for the system to work) and need to be periodically calibrated.
Despite the fact that the sensors are not as accurate, they are sufficient for measuring moisture and watering at the right time.
Autonomous weather control station and watering plants Autonomous station of weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants As this is an ever-evolving project, the wizard has already drawn up several plans for future upgrades and has already begun implementing some of them.
Future projects include:
tinyStacky – A fully self-contained garden tower with recycling.
Smart Solar Pack – 75Wh power supply with solar panel, 12V and 24V regulated output for higher power systems such as water pumps and fans.
tinyTanker is a simple water tank manager that tracks rainwater harvest and tap water usage.
Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-04/1618055883_1-69.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto"> Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants  Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants Autonomous station for weather control and watering plants

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