DIY

Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on pellets)

Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) This is one of the most difficult projects the master has worked on -Modeller under the nickname AMbros Custom.
A year ago, he built a 3-in-1 CNC. And then he decided to make an extruder for a 3D printer that would work on waste plastic.
According to him, the project is very complex and he redesigned it several times. The lack of some tools and machine tools, in particular a metal lathe, with such complex work is the main drawback.
The size of the nozzle on the nozzle of this extruder is 1.5 mm. This is too large a diameter for small jobs, but for printing, for example, flower pots, it will work fine.
After making the extruder, he carried out a series of tests and found that with a material having a smaller granule size, for example, 1.5-2 mm, there would be no problems at a speed of 50 mm/sec. Coarser material, for example, 3-4 mm, cannot melt at a speed of more than 24 mm/s.
Tools and materials: -Step motor with NEMA 17 gearbox;
-Coupling connecting 10 mm;
– Aluminum pipe with a diameter of 1 inch (2.5 cm);
-Copper billet 32X32X40 mm;
-Aluminum strip 8 mm thick and 3 mm wide 32 mm for the manufacture of a radiator;
-Stainless steel rod M10 with M10 washer with 23mm outer diameter. for auger screw;
-Bolt with internal hexagon M3 15mm (3 pcs for the heating unit);
-Bolt M3 20 mm long for a fan (8 pcs);
-Bolt M4 25 mm long (4 pcs. for motor mounting);
-Bolt M3 20 mm long (for attaching the motor to the body);
-Bolt M5 12mm 2 pcs. (for fixing the heating block;
-Bolt M10 10 mm long (for the nozzle)
-Vise; -USHM;
-Welding equipment;
-Haw on metal;
-Drilling machine;
-Drill;
-Band-grinding machine;
-Drills;
Step one: design
Starting work on this project, the master made only preliminary sketches of the extruder. General drawing only, no details. All other details were finalized during the manufacturing process.
extruder v1.f3d
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Step Two: Heater Assembly
This is the bottom and very important part of the extruder. The final piece measures 32X32X40mm. 40 mm is the length of the part. According to the master, if you make such a device, then it is better to make this knot even longer.
After several unsuccessful attempts, as a result, the master made a knot from a bar of copper.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) [/center]
When manufacturing this unit, you need to take into account the diameter of the tube that will be installed in the block. In this case, the diameter is 18.75 mm. According to this size, the master marks the hole in the center of the bar.
Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Workpiece length 40 mm. Piston length 20 mm. This means you need to drill a central hole 30 mm deep.
Ceramic heating elements will be placed in the upper part of the heater, in the corners. There are two heating elements, each with a power of 40 watts.
This design allows the unit to be heated to a temperature of 300 ° C in 3 minutes. 20 sec.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Cuts grooves on the sides of the node.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Drills a hole for a thermistor.
A thermistor is a sensor that measures the heating temperature. Usually the thermistor is installed closer to the nozzle, but in this case, the master decided to install it in the middle of the entire block. The knot is copper and the heat will be distributed more evenly.
To secure the wire, he also drilled another hole for the M3 bolt. The thermistor is located closer to the ceramic heater, so it won't take long to read the temperature.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Step three: tube
Now you need to press the tube into the hole.
He cools the tube, and heats the copper billet. Then he drives the tube into the hole. Cuts it to the desired length and presses it to the end.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Step four: loading chamber
Now we need to make a loading chamber. Through it, plastic granules will enter the working chamber.
Cuts off two tubes. The tubes are 18 mm in diameter and will be welded together at a 45 degree angle. The auger will be installed in the straight tube, and the material will be fed into the corner tube. A hole must be made in a straight tube for installing an inclined tube.
Also, for the loading chamber, the master decided to make a radiator. The fact is that when heated, part of the heat will be distributed to the loading chamber. The radiator will dissipate heat and prevent the plastic from melting in the loading chamber.
The radiator will be made of aluminum strip. The master cuts off six rectangular blanks from it.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Drills a hole in the workpieces along the diameter of the tube. Then he installs the first fin of the radiator and welds to the pipe. Installs a thin wire spacer and welds the second rib. Thus, it welds all six plates. Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Welds an inclined to a vertical tube.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Step five: mount for the motor
Now you need to prepare the mount for the motor. His craftsman also makes from aluminum strip. Strip thickness 6 mm. The use of aluminum also provides additional cooling for the engine.
Cuts blanks from the plate. One 43 mm wide, the other 55 mm wide. Length of strips More than a third of the length of the engine. Also cuts two end plates. Drills central holes in the plates along the diameter of the engine (front and rear parts have different diameters) and mounting holes.
 Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Now we need to weld the body. Mounts the end plates to the motor and welds the side workpieces. To have a small gap between the engine and the housing wall, he puts paper between them.
After welding, it cleans and grinds the seams.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Step six: mounting plate
To attach the loading chamber to the motor housing, the master cut out another plate. I drilled a hole in it and welded it to the vertical tube. I drilled holes in the corners of the plate and cut the threads.
Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Step seven: bracket
For fastening the entire unit to the machine carriage , the master welds a plate 30 mm wide on its sides. Then it cleans and grinds the knot.
Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) To connect two units, the loading chamber and the heating chamber, a special flange is made. Then he welds it to the tube.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Step eight: nozzle
The master made the nozzle from an M10 bolt. Drilled a hole in the heater and cut a thread. Then he welded metal onto the head of the bolt. I sharpened the head, giving it the shape of a cone. Drilled a 1.5 mm hole in the center. I drilled a 6 mm hole from the other flat end of the bolt (not to the end).
 Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Step nine: auger
The master made the auger from a bolt and washers. Washers need to be taken two sizes larger than the bolt (inner diameter). Washers are cut and bent slightly. Then they need to be welded to the bolt.
A bearing must be installed at the end of the auger.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) < a href = "https://usamodelkina.ru/uploads/posts/2021-05/1622097884_18-3.jpg" rel = "prettyPhoto">Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules)  Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer ( works on granules) After welding, grinds the part.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Step Ten: Installing the Sensor
To track the positioning of the extruder relative to the desktop of the machine, you need to install the sensor. The master used an aluminum plate to fix it.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Step eleven: thermal insulation
The thermal conductivity of copper is high, it heats up quickly, but also cools down quickly. To eliminate this problem, the master decided to cover the heating chamber with fiberglass material wrapped in Kapton tape.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) Homemade extruder for 3D -printer (works on granules) Step twelve: assembly and configuration
When all the parts were ready, the master washed them all in warm soapy water, and proceeded to assemble.
Homemade extruder for a 3D printer (works on granules) After everything is assembled before using the extruder, you need to configure the firmware. It is necessary to establish what type of unit is used and how long it takes to heat up.
The wizard sets up M303 H1 S200.
Here H stands for the heater number. Usually a bed heater has an H0 number and so on. S means the temperature the user wants to set. Those. S200 means that the temperature rises to 200 ° C.
The driving speed must also be adjusted. It is necessary to set the speed so that when moving the carriage with the extruder, the filament diameter is the same as on the nozzle. In this case, 1.5 mm.
Based on the results of the work done, the master concludes that the extruder can be made independently. It would be even easier to manufacture it with a lathe. In this case, some parts could be made much lighter. This product weighs about 2 kg and not every CNC machine can handle this weight.
The entire manufacturing process and a demonstration of the extruder can be watched in the video.

Source:

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